What are the two mechanisms by which a bacterial cell can become resistant to antibiotics? Provide details.

. If a person has a compromised immune system, why might they want to avoid seeking treatment at a hospital? (1/2 pts)
2. Explain how interfering with cell wall production could kill Staphylococcus aureus. (1/2 pts)
3. Bacteria lack meiosis. Explain how they produce offspring without meiosis. (1/2 pts)
4. What is gene transfer? What affect does this have on a population of bacteria? (1/2 pts)
5. Assume that every time you copy DNA, whether it is bacterial DNA or human DNA, you have the same rate of mutation. If that is the case, explain why bacteria mutate to adapt to their environment much faster than humans. (1/2 pts)
6. What are the two mechanisms by which a bacterial cell can become resistant to antibiotics? Provide details. (1/2 pts)
7. You’ve gone to the doctor and she has determined that you have a Staphylococcus aureus infection, and it is one of the following possible strains (A-E), but she is not sure which. Which antibiotic is most likely to be effective? (1/2 pts)
Resistant (+) or Sensitive (–) to: Bacterium Ampicillin Penicillin Methicillin Vancomycin A + + – + B + – – + C – – – – D + + + + E – – – –
8. Two bacteria are genetically identical in all ways except that one has a gene that confers resistance to penicillin. These two cells are grown in the laboratory in cell-culture medium that is free of antibiotics. Will one cell reproduce faster than the other one? If so, which one? Explain your answer. (1/2 pts)
9. What is the role of natural selection in evolution? (1/2 pts)
10. What would the outcome be if a homogeneous (no variation) antibiotic-sensitive strain of S. aureus was grown in the presence of antibiotics? Why? (1/2 pts)
11. You have a population of boa constrictors (snakes) on a Caribbean island that is 100 square miles and has a rich supply of lizard, bird, and mammal prey, and the island lacks boa constrictor predators (including humans). The boas are capable of reaching 16 feet in length in these conditions. Overall boa growth is strongly linked to habitat size and food availability. A hurricane comes along and moves 18 pregnant female boas to three different islands (6/island).
• Island A is 10 square miles, has no mammal or bird prey, has three sizeable human settlements, and is farmed extensively. • Island B is 30 square miles, has a lot of mammal, bird, and lizard prey items and very few humans. • Island C is 50 square miles, has limited bird prey, no mammal prey items, and moderate small lizard prey items.
After 100 years, on which of these three islands would you expect to find the largest boas? Explain your answer (1/2 pts)
12. Describe the relationship between an organism’s genotype, phenotype, environment, and natural selection. (1/2 pts)
13. A species of small lizard has three color forms: pale gray, brown, and black. In its original range, the colors of the rocky environment were mixed from pale gray to very dark, and the population had an even mix of all three color forms. The blending of colors with the environment helps the lizards hide from predators. A group of these lizards ended up on an island with all gray rocks, and the island has no predators that eat lizards. What will the lizards look like in 50 years? (1/2 pts)
14. What is the difference between stabilizing and diversifying selection? Provide an examples of each? (1/2 pts)
15. You are discussing antibiotic resistance with a friend, and the friend says the obvious solution is to develop stronger antibiotics. Do you agree? Why or why not? (1/2 pts)

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