in no more than 2 pages (1200 words max), offer an analysis/critical response to the author’s treatment of the question

1. Number each page.
2. Do not use a separate title page.
3. In upper left corner of page one, type your name.
4. Below your name, type “Philosophy 101: Ethics” (without quotes).
5. Offer a brief title for your paper, centered on page one
6. Begin your paper 2 lines/spaces below the title.
7. Use one- inch margins on each side, top and bottom of page.
8. Use 1.5 spacing and standard font and size (e.g. Palatino 12 pt.)
9. Do not separate paragraphs with additional spacing.
10. Do not use BOLD print.
Paper Option 1
From the list of readings below (from the MacKinnon text), select one for the focus of your paper. Do BOTH 1 & 2 of the following:

1: in no more than 3 pages (1200 words max), offer a summary of the reading. The summary should be an accurate and objective representation of the author’s position and should not reflect the view or the attitude of the student. The summary should have as its audience an intelligent reader unfamiliar with the essay. Your summary should be in your own words, voice, and style, rather than that of the author being summarized. Avoid paraphrasing and lengthy or frequent quoting, as this shifts the burden from the writer to the reader. Your summary will be a demonstration of your understanding of the piece being summarized. An excellent summary is one that accurately and thoroughly informs the reader.

2: in no more than 2 pages (1200 words max), offer an analysis/critical response to the author’s treatment of the question, issue, or theory of focus. An analysis involves a close and developed examination (what YOU think) of a claim or argument presented in the piece that you have summarized. Here you should consider such elements of reasoning as assumptions, point of view, implications, concepts, facts, interpretations, inferences, etc., which are integral to the author’s reasoning as he/she attempts to convince the reader that something is the case. Critical thinking involves responding to one or another of these elements, seeking clarification, pointing out a possible inconsistency in the reasoning, challenging the accuracy or significance of a claim, pointing out a questionable assumption, offering an alternative interpretation or point of view, etc. (basically, what Socrates does with Euthyphro’s claims), or, on the other hand, defending a thesis against such challenges. A critical response involves taking a position with respect to some aspect of the reasoning and supporting that position with arguments. In short, a response is critical to the extent that it advances the dialogue and gives the reader something to consider. Philosophy papers are typically argumentative and analytical rather than simply descriptive or expressive. A philosophy paper is supposed to convince someone that something is the case, or shed light where there was confusion or misunderstanding. Simply agreeing or disagreeing with an author or expressing one’s feelings about what was said are NOT critical responses, however worthy they might otherwise be.

A. Plato: EUTHYPHRO (pgs 12-15)

B. Mary Midgley: Trying Out One’s New Sword (pgs 27-30)

C. Thomas Hobbes: Self Love (pgs 45-48)

D. John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism (pgs. 67-72)

E. Immanuel Kant: Fundamental Principles (pgs 84-93)

F. Aristotle: The Nicomachean Ethics (pgs 128-134)

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