Health Promotion Model

I’m trying to learn for my Nursing class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

Discuss various theories of health promotion, including Pender’s Health Promotion Model, the Health Belief Model, the Transtheoretical Theory, and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Discuss at least two definitions of health. Critically analyze racial and cultural diversity in the United States. Describe the importance of air, water and food quality as a determinant of health. Describe the importance of air, water and food quality as a determinant of health.

Minimum 700 Words

2 References

No plagiarism

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Health Promotion Model

INTRODUCTION

The health promotion model (HPM) proposed by Nola J Pender (1982; revised, 1996) was designed to be a “complementary counterpart to models of health protection.”
It defines health as a positive dynamic state not merely the absence of disease. Health promotion is directed at increasing a client’s level of well being.
The health promotion model describes the multi dimensional nature of persons as they interact within their environment to pursue health.

ABOUT THE THEORIST

Nola J. Pender, PhD, RN, FAAN – former professor of nursing at the University of Michigan
Visit her page at University of Michigan website: http://www.nursing.umich.edu/faculty-staff/nola-j-pender

The model focuses on following three areas:

· Individual characteristics and experiences

· Behavior-specific cognitions and affect

· Behavioral outcomes

The health promotion model notes that each person has unique personal characteristics and experiences that affect subsequent actions. The set of variables for behavioral specific knowledge and affect have important motivational significance. These variables can be modified through nursing actions. Health promoting behavior is the desired behavioral outcome and is the end point in the HPM. Health promoting behaviors should result in improved health, enhanced functional ability and better quality of life at all stages of development. The final behavioral demand is also influenced by the immediate competing demand and preferences, which can derail an intended health promoting actions.

ASSUMPTIONS OF THE HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL

The HPM is based on the following assumptions, which reflect both nursing and behavioral science perspectives:

Individuals seek to actively regulate their own behavior.

Individuals in all their biopsychosocial complexity interact with the environment, progressively transforming the environment and being transformed over time.

Health professionals constitute a part of the interpersonal environment, which exerts influence on persons throughout their life span.

Self-initiated reconfiguration of person-environment interactive patterns is essential to behavior chang

THEORETICAL PROPOSITIONS OF THE HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL

Theoretical statements derived from the model provide a basis for investigative work on health behaviors. The HPM is based on the following theoretical propositions:

Prior behavior and inherited and acquired characteristics influence beliefs, affect, and enactment of health-promoting behavior.

Persons commit to engaging in behaviors from which they anticipate deriving personally valued benefits.

Perceived barriers can constrain commitment to action, a mediator of behavior as well as actual behavior.

Perceived competence or self-efficacy to execute a given behavior increases the likelihood of commitment to action and actual performance of the behavior.

Greater perceived self-efficacy results in fewer perceived barriers to a specific health behavior.

Positive affect toward a behavior results in greater perceived self-efficacy, which can in turn, result in increased positive affect.

When positive emotions or affect are associated with a behavior, the probability of commitment and action is increased.

Persons are more likely to commit to and engage in health-promoting behaviors when significant others model the behavior, expect the behavior to occur, and provide assistance and support to enable the behavior.

Families, peers, and health care providers are important sources of interpersonal influence that can increase or decrease commitment to and engagement in health-promoting behavior.

Situational influences in the external environment can increase or decrease commitment to or participation in health-promoting behavior.

The greater the commitments to a specific plan of action, the more likely health-promoting behaviors are to be maintained over time.

Commitment to a plan of action is less likely to result in the desired behavior when competing demands over which persons have little control require immediate attention. 13. Commitment to a plan of action is less likely to result in the desired behavior when other actions are more attractive and thus preferred over the target behavior.

Persons can modify cognitions, affect, and the interpersonal and physical environment to create incentives for health actions.

THE MAJOR CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS OF THE HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL

Individual Characteristics and Experience

Prior related behaviour

Frequency of the similar behaviour in the past. Direct and indirect effects on the likelihood of engaging in health promoting behaviors.

PERSONAL FACTORS

Personal factors categorized as biological, psychological and socio-cultural. These factors are predictive of a given behavior and shaped by the nature of the target behaviour being considered.

Personal biological factors

Include variable such as age gender body mass index pubertal status, aerobic capacity, strength, agility, or balance.

Personal psychological factors

Include variables such as self esteem self motivation personal competence perceived health status and definition of health.

Personal socio-cultural factors

Include variables such as race ethnicity, accuculturation, education and socioeconomic status.

Behavioural Specific Cognition and Affect

PERCEIVED BENEFITS OF ACTION

Anticipated positive out comes that will occur from health behaviour.

PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO ACTION

Anticipated, imagined or real blocks and personal costs of understanding a given behaviour

PERCEIVED SELF EFFICACY

Judgment of personal capability to organise and execute a health-promoting behaviour. Perceived self efficacy influences perceived barriers to action so higher efficacy result in lowered perceptions of barriers to the performance of the behavior.

ACTIVITY RELATED AFFECT

Subjective positive or negative feeling that occur before, during and following behavior based on the stimulus properties of the behaviour itself. Activity-related affect influences perceived self-efficacy, which means the more positive the subjective feeling, the greater the feeling of efficacy. In turn, increased feelings of efficacy can generate further positive affect.

INTERPERSONAL INFLUENCES

Cognition concerning behaviours, beliefs, or attitudes of the others. Interpersonal influences include: norms (expectations of significant others), social support (instrumental and emotional encouragement) and modelling (vicarious learning through observing others engaged in a particular behaviour). Primary sources of interpersonal influences are families, peers, and healthcare providers.

SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES

Personal perceptions and cognitions of any given situation or context that can facilitate or impede behaviour. Include perceptions of options available, demand characteristics and aesthetic features of the environment in which given health promoting is proposed to take place. Situational influences may have direct or indirect influences on health behaviour.

Behavioural Outcome

COMMITMENT TO PLAN OF ACTION

The concept of intention and identification of a planned strategy leads to implementation of health behaviour.

IMMEDIATE COMPETING DEMANDS AND PREFERENCES

Competing demands are those alternative behaviour over which individuals have low control because there are environmental contingencies such as work or family care responsibilities. Competing preferences are alternative behaviour over which individuals exert relatively high control, such as choice of ice cream or apple for a snack

HEALTH PROMOTING BEHAVIOUR

Endpoint or action outcome directed toward attaining positive health outcome such as optimal well-being, personal fulfillment, and productive living.

REFERENCES

Marriner TA, Raile AM. Nursing theorists and their work. 5th ed. Sakraida T.Nola J. Pender. The Health Promotion Model. St Louis: Mosby; 2005

Polit DF, Beck CT. Nursing research:Principles and methods. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007

Black JM, Hawks JH, Keene AM. Medical surgical nursing. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby; 2006.
Potter PA, Perry AG. Fundamentals of nursing. 6th ed. St.Louis: Elsevier Mosby; 2006.

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Health Promotion Model

I’m trying to learn for my Nursing class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

Discuss various theories of health promotion, including Pender’s Health Promotion Model, the Health Belief Model, the Transtheoretical Theory, and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Discuss at least two definitions of health. Critically analyze racial and cultural diversity in the United States. Describe the importance of air, water and food quality as a determinant of health. Describe the importance of air, water and food quality as a determinant of health.

Minimum 700 Words

2 References

No plagiarism

Get help with your complex tasks from our writing experts

When you have no idea what to do with your written assignments, use a reliable paper writing service. Now you don’t need to worry about the deadlines, grades, or absence of ideas. Place an order on our site to get original papers for a low price.

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Health promotion model

I. BACKGROUND: OVERVIEW

A. Nola Pender (born August 16, 1941) is a nursing theorist, author and academic. She is a professor emerita of nursing at the University of Michigan. Nola Pender developed a nursing theory model called Health Promotion. This theory is aimed at helping patients prevent illness through their behaviors and choices (Butts et al, 2013).

B. She earned did her Ph.D. degree at Northwestern University in 1969. During her doctoral degree, she met a doctoral advisor by the name James Hall who studied human thoughts in relation to how it influenced and shaped their behavior and motivation. From her interaction with James, Nola developed an interest in health promotion which culminated in her, coming up with the health promotion model after seeing that health personals only intervene when a patient had developed an acute or chronic health condition (Butts et al, 2013).

C. She believed that preventing a problem before it occurred could improve a person’s quality of life and money can be saved by the promotion of healthy lifestyles. This model was published in 1982.

D. Overview of the Theory

• Nola Pender’s theory’s purpose is to aid nurses in helping their patients identify health risk factors as well as beneficial practices in order to help the patients actively determine which behaviors will result in achieving optimum health. (reference)

• The health promotion Model is based on eight assessment nursing beliefs, all of which can be determined as points of potential nursing intervention. (reference)

• The key nursing concepts include a consideration of:

· Person

· Environment

· Nursing

· Health

· Illness

II. BACKGROUND: THEORY DESCRIPTION

A. Health promotion model

1. The Model:

· In1982, Dr. Pender published her health Promotion Model in her first edition book “Health Promotion in Nursing Practice.”

· The key components of this model include individual characteristic and experiences, behavior specific cognition and affects, and behavioral outcome health promoting behavior.

· The purpose of this model is to promote health promotion and illness prevention.

· It can aid nurses to help patients in altering their negative behaviors.

· Mid-range theory: A testable theory that contains a limited number of variables, and is limited in scope as well, yet is of sufficient generality to be useful with a variety of clinical research questions (physical exercise, diet, smoking, stress management). I used this website to get info above so we need to give reference : https://prezi.com/0wcyvclypzqx/copy-of-nola-pender/

2. The Focus and Goal:

Pender defines health as a positive dynamic state, not just absence of disease. The Health Promotion Theory focuses on three main aspects of life: behaviors specific knowledge, individual experience and behavior outcome, therefore every individual should be educated on behavioral changes that will help promote their health.

Dr. Pender wanted a model that focused on positive factors:

· Identified factor that influence behavior (Pender, 2011)

· The nurse work with the patient to discover behaviors and help change them, so can lead to a healthy lifestyle (Pender, 2011)

3. Developed because she believed intervention was only being done after people developed health issues. Dr. Pender believed that prevention is a better option.

· Better quality of life

· Increased life span

· Saving in health care dollars (Pender, 2011)

With this knowledge, these individuals should then work towards changing their past behaviors whether cultural practices or family traditions with the hope that these changes will produce anticipated health benefits. The goal is to learn and set up health promoting behavior (Alligood, 2014).

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Health Promotion Model

Health Promotion Model Please develop and create your own health promotion model. You can write a short paper describing your target group or health promotion issues, and the various elements you would include in the model. I also encourage you to be creative.

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