Dialogue 4A: Nonparametric Tests. Find and critique an empirical article in which a Kruskal-Wallis test was used that was published in a peer-reviewed leadership journal. Then, start the dialogue providing a study. In your critique, briefly address the following: (a) Reference information, (b) Research Purpose/Question, (c) Conceptual Framework, (d) Data Collection Methods, (e) Sampling Procedures, (f) Data Analysis Methods, (g) Findings/Conclusions, and (h) final Critique. Interact with colleagues by commenting on their critique. EXAMPLE OF HOW TO ANSWER: Reference Soomro, B. A., Shah, N., & Mangi, S. (2019). Factors affecting the entrepreneurial leadership in small and medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) of Pakistan: empirical evidence. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management, and Sustainable Development, 15(1), 31-44. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328646413_Factors_affecting_the_entrepreneurial_leadership_in_small-_and_medium-sized_enterprises_SMEs_of_Pakistan_An_empirical_evidence 1- Research Purpose/Question The factors of entrepreneurial leadership affecting SMEs of Pakistan are discussed in this research study. RQ1: How are the factors of entrepreneurial leadership that affects small and medium enterprises of Pakistan investigated? RQ2: How is entrepreneurial leadership created with motivational, strategy, communicative, and personality factors? 2- Conceptual Framework Entrepreneurial leaders always have an impressing effect on the projects or ventures of business (Boeker, 1989). According to Ensley, Pearce and Hmieleski (2006), leaders of small and medium enterprises have a greater influence on the outcome and behavior of firms as compared to any other established organization or business entities. 3- Data Collection Methods Data is collected with the help of a questionnaire and is adapted from the available literature. 4- Sampling Procedure A total of 352 personnel in top management roles were selected for the data collection and the applied technique was simple random sampling technique. 5- Data Analysis Method To answer the research question of the given study, Pearsons correlation and multiple regression analysis was used by the researchers. 6- Findings and Conclusion According to the findings of this research, all the factors of entrepreneurial leadership positively related to the SMEs of Pakistan. Managers and policymakers of SMEs can use these findings to take decisions to create and develop their entrepreneurial leadership with the help of these motivational, strategies, personality, and communicative factors. 7- Critical Analysis Techniques like correlation and regression analysis are used to answer the research questions in this research study, but these questions can also be answered by using other modern data analysis techniques like structural equation modeling (SEM) to get more reliable results. References Boeker, W. (1989). Strategic change: The effects of founding and history. The Academy of Management Journal, 32(3), 489-515. doi:10.2307/256432 Ensley, M. D., Hmieleski, K. M., & Pearce, C. L. (2006). The importance of vertical and shared leadership within new venture top management teams: Implications for the performance of startups. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(3), 217-231. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.02.002 Dialogue 4B: DISCUSS the results of the Chi-square, Mann Whitney, Kruskal Wallis, Spearman rho, and Kendalls tau tests.
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