Research Summary Table: Team-Based Learning Jane Doe Chamberlain College of Nursing NR505: Advance Research Methods: Evidence-Based Practice Spring A, 2012 Research Summary Table: Team-Based Learning Author, Year of Publication Purpose Sample Design Level of Evidence Findings Limitations Abdelkhalek et al. (2010) To describe student satisfaction with team-based learning (TBL) Convenience sample of 363 medical students (no comparison group) Descriptive study of student satisfaction with TBL in approximately 14 sections of an introductory medical course VI: evidence from a single descriptive study 304 students responded and demonstrated high satisfaction with TBL No comparison group or random assignment to group No educational outcomes measured Bick et al. (2009) To describe student satisfaction with TBL Convenience sample of students in a clinical medicine course; N= 240 per year for four years (same cohort of students) Comparison/descriptive study of student satisfaction between three years of team projects only and a final year using TBL VI: evidence from a comparison/ descriptive study Students in the final year rated their individual and team engagement higher but preferred lectures to TBL. There was no comparison of final examination scores. No inferential statistics were offered. No educational outcomes measured No randomization. Chung, Rhee, Baik, & A (2009) To test the effectiveness of TBL Convenience sample of medical students in South Korea (N=160; same cohort of students, two different courses) Comparison/descriptive study of differences in Individual Readiness Assessment Test (IRAT) and Group Readiness Assessment Test (GRAT) scores in the total sample and IRAT and final exam scores in stronger vs. weaker students VI: evidence from a comparison/ descriptive study GRAT scores were significantly higher than IRAT scores. The final exam scores of weaker students improved to a greater extent than scores of stronger students. No comparison between TBL courses and non-TBL courses. Espey, 2010 To explore student attitudes toward TBL Convenience sample of economics students (N=189) Descriptive study of student attitudes toward TBL VI: evidence from a single descriptive study Student attitudes toward teamwork increases after being exposed to TBL; students who are successful academically are more negative about TBL. No learning outcomes were measured. Summary The research question addressed in the research summary table is: How effective is team-based learning (TBL) as a teaching methodology? All of the samples were convenience samples of medical and economics students, so the results of the studies do not apply to all students. Two of the studies in the table (Abdelkhalck, Hussein, Gibbs, & Hamdy, 2010; Espey, 2010) describe one sample of students; one, a group of medical students and the other, a group of economics students. The third study (Bick et al., 2009) compares student satisfaction with TBL versus traditional methods in clinical medical students. The researchers for these three studies used descriptive designs only. The fourth study (Chung, Rhee, Baik, & A, 2009) compared individual- and group-readiness-assessment test scores and final examination scores when TBL was introduced into a course for medical students. Whether the same final examination was used when comparing the two courses is unclear. This was a quasi-experimental study, lacking randomization and clear outcomes. None of the studies in the table is at the top of the levels-of-evidence table, though a quasi-experimental study is considered to be higher than descriptive studies. Overall, the studies in this table demonstrate that students are satisfied with TBL, though medical students in the study by Chung, Rhee, Baik, & A (2009) preferred lectures. The same study demonstrates that TBL is a promising teaching methodology and that group learning may be more effective than individual learning. However, none of the studies describes a true experiment. Limitations of the studies include the following: (1) only convenience samples were used, (2) no control groups were used, (3) no inferential statistics were used, and (4) studies did not examine improvements in learning with clear educational outcomes. Though Chung, Rhee, Baik & A found greater group scores than individual scores, whether the same final examination was used before and after TBL was introduced is unclear. Further experimental studies are needed in future studies on TBL, with clear, objective educational outcomes as dependent variables. Though student satisfaction with a teaching methodology is an interesting outcome, dependent variables showing improvement in student learning are more important. References Abdelkhalek, N., Hussein, A., Gibbs, T., & Hamdy, H. (2010). Using team-based learning to prepare medical students for future problem-based learning. Medical Teacher, 32(2), 123-129. Bick, R.J., Oakes, J.L., Actor, J.K., Cleary, L.J., Felleman, D.J., Ownby, A.R., Weisbrodt, N.W., & Seifert, W.E. (2009). Title of article? Journal of the International Association of Medical Science Educators, 19, 126-134. Chung, E.K., Rhee, J.A., Baik, Y.H., & A, O.S. (2009). The effect of team-based learning in medical ethics education. Medical Teacher, 31, 1013-1017. Espey, M. (2010). Valuing teams: What influences student attitudes? North American College and Teachers Association Journal, 54(1), 31-40.
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