action or process of distributing things or people over a wide area
2 – How can we best discourage a terrorist to use biological weapons?
First and most important is education about biological weapons, next find the cause of the problem and why the terrorist is targeting a nation or a group with the weapons. It would also be useful to coordinate with other countries and form some kind of group that fights terrorist organizations. Upgrading the medicines and finding new ways to fight and stop biological weapons.
3 – How do the human and animal vaccine industry differ?
There isn’t much difference, for example, whatever vaccine is given to cattle will need to be regulated because we will end up eating the meat with that vaccine. Therefore, the only real difference is how the FDA regulates the pharmaceutical industry verses the agriculture industry.
4 – What is the difference between the lethality for biological weapons and chemical weapons? What is the difference in the mass (give approximate values) needed to attack 10 square kilometers between a biological weapon and a chemical weapon?
It depends on what is being used or spread and how it is being used. All have different ranges and different results. In terms of lethality, it would have to be the same. The mass of bioagent will be less than the mass of a chemical agent.
5 – How can genetic engineering be useful to the development of biological weapons?
understanding and using genetic engineering to make vaccines and cures to all the biological weapons is absolutely necessary to fight them. For example, a genetic engineer can make a virus or bacteria that can be used to fight the biological weapon.
6 – Describe how dogs are used as chemical sensors? Give some examples of how dogs are used. How long can a dog work? How much rest does a dog need between working sessions?
They have very sensitive noses so that can be used to detect chemicals. An example are the dogs used in the army or at the airports to detect explosives, they would need to be routinely trained and used to test whatever chemical or explosive, once it reaches a certain age or is no longer picking up the smells from the training it will need to be retired.
7 – How does a Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)work?
IMS works by using an electric field with a drift velocity that is proportional with the ion mobility being constant. its based on the time and distance that the mass of that ion can be measured.
8 – How do Antibody Based Biosensors (ABB)work?
immunosensors are immobilized on a solid substrate, these sensors have fluorescent labeled signal molecules and when there are exposed then the signal molecule is released. the fluorescence is then picked up by photon sensors which give a reading to the amount of antigens.
9 – Has the chemical weapons convention banned the use of incapacitating (“non-lethal”) agents? Provide the quote from the CWC treaty which support your position.
Yes, they define them as “Munitions and devices, specifically designed to cause death or other harm through the toxic properties…” to be banned.
10 – What chemical agent would be easiest to produce?
Nerve agents such as mustard, chlorine, and sarin gas.
11 – What are the symptoms of sarin gas? Would a doctor normally be able to diagnose a patient exposed to sarin gas? Discuss why.
Runny nose, watery eyes, pinpoint pupils, eye pain, blurred vision, drooling and excessive sweating, cough, chest tightness. If the doctor knows exactly that there has been a sarin exposure then yes the patient can be treated with Atropine sulfate which will help them breathe by drying the secretion and opening their airways to allow them to breathe freely.
12 – Can a war be won through use of CW ? What is the reasoning for your answer?
Yes and no, they were used in the Iraq-Iran war and they were used to stop the Iranians but they are very unpredictable so they may not be the best. 13 –
13 – Describe the difference between how a terrorist, rogue nation and an established nation (such as Russia or China) would use a biological weapon?
A terrorist group would target a small area or one city for example and may not be very effective but an established nation such as russia or china can do so and be very effective in doing it since they can be more organized.
14 – How would a dedicated military biological weapons facility compare to a dual-use facility (e.g., biological weapons and vaccine production)?
military would only be producing the weapons and trying to enhance them and make them more reliable and effective while the dual use is trying to stay ahead of them by producing the vaccines to fight against the weapons.
15 – Who would respond to an agro terrorism attack? The U.S. agroeconomic
16 – Is it feasible to protect a large population against terrorist use of chemical weapons?
It is hard to but yes, as a developed country you have to be vigilant in stopping all the risks that can hard your citizens. the ways to be vigilant include better intelligence, better coordination with other countries, better training for all first responders and better ways to stop them before they use the weapons.