• Use knowledge of biological principles and the Scientific Method
to ask and answer relevant questions about human health and disease
• Analyze information to distinguish between diseased and healthy
structure and functioning.
• Analyze how internal and external factors cause disruption of
healthy body function, leading to disease and disorders.
Mr. Smith is 60 years old.
He was diagnosed with a prostate cancer five years ago. Over the past few days,
Mr. Smith has been feeling weak and increasingly tired and has also been
suffering from a headache that did not respond to over-the-counter medications.
He scheduled an appointment with his physician.
His physician performed a
physical examination and recommended a battery of laboratory tests and imaging
The table below shows
Reference values in the right-hand column. These values reflect the normal
range of values for patients without disease or illness. The center
column reflects the resulting values for medical test results obtained for Mr.
Take note whether Mr. Smith’s values are within normal limits.
|Mr. Smith||Reference Values|
|Hb (Hemoglobin)||7.5 g/dL||13.8 to 18.2 g/dL|
After receiving Mr.
Smith’s test results, his physician admits him to the hospital. Hospital staff
treated him and discharged him.
The following week, Mr.
Smith returns to his physician with the same complaint of weakness and a new
complaint of shortness of breath. His blood pressure is 160/100 mmHg. MRI
reveals metastasis of prostate cancer to osseous tissue. Abdominal CT shows
obstruction of intestine due to nodular enlargement of adrenal glands.
Laboratory results from
Mr. Smith’s second hospital admission and medical tests show following
|Mr. Smith||Reference Values|
|Hb||7.3 g/dl||13.8 to 18.2 g/dL|
|HCO3||38 mmol/l||22-26 mmol/L|
|Urinary K+||70 mmol/L/24 hr||25-120 mmol/L/24 hr|
|Blood Glucose||460 mg/dl||64.8-104.4 mg/dL|
|Serum Aldosterone||1 ng/dl|
|24 hour Urinary|
|8.4 mcg/24 hr||2.3-21.0 mcg/24 hr|
|Renin||2.1 ng/ml/hr||0.65-5.0 ng/ml/hr|
|1082 pg/ml||9-46 pg/ml|
|Cortisol||155.5 microg/dL||0-25 microg/dL|
CONCLUSION AND DIAGNOSIS
Laboratory findings, MRI
and CT confirmed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma, hypertension and
refractory hypokalemia due to ectopic ACTH production. High levels of
circulating cortisol caused continuous activation of mineralocorticoid
receptors resulting in hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and hypertension.
After reading provided scenario, answer the following
1. What are the
components of physical examination? Describe each component. (See Module 1,
Commentary, Topic 8. Disease Categories, Part B. Steps in Diagnosis)
Mr. Smith’s blood pressure was 160/100 mmHg. How does a
medical provider take or measure blood pressure? What do the top (numerator)
and bottom (denominator) numbers mean in the biological sense? What is the
significance the size of these two numbers? Is Mr. Smith’s blood pressure
within normal range? Explain how you concluded whether Mr. Smith’s blood
pressure is/is not within normal range.
3. Based on the data
provided, what laboratory tests were performed and what samples were taken from
the patient? Select one of the laboratory tests ordered for Mr. Smith and
discuss why Mr. Smith’s physician might have ordered the test and the
information she might have expected to obtain from that particular test.
Compare Mr. Smith’s values with reference values and
indicate whether MR. Smith’s values are below, above, or within normal range
(compare Mr. Smith’s values with the Reference values) for each laboratory
tests in the table above from the second set of tests.
5. What imaging
procedures did Mr. Smith undergo? Discuss the distinctions and similarities
between the two different imaging approaches. What were the results of imaging
procedures in Mr. Smith’s case?
Select one of the medical terms from the CONCLUSION and
DIAGNOSIS section above and define what it means. Also, discuss, in your
own words and based on what you can gather about Mr. Smith’s condition, how the
laboratory or imaging tests helped with drawing a conclusion or making the
diagnosis. In your own words, discuss how medical providers use the scientific
method to come to work through the examination and diagnosis of a patient.
You should write a short
paper addressing all six questions and submit it into the assignment folder. Your
grade will depend upon the content, clarity and originality of responses
written in your own words. Good writing practices, including the use of
correct grammar, sentence and paragraph structure, and punctuation, and
presence of logical reasoning, will account for a portion of your grade.
Cite all sources in APA
format within your answer text as well as full citations in APA format at the
end of the assignment.