Analyze how internal and external factors cause disruption of healthy body function, leading to disease and disorders.

Use knowledge of biological principles and the Scientific Method to ask and answer relevant questions about human health and disease.

Analyze information to distinguish between diseases and healthy structure and functioning.

Analyze how internal and external factors cause disruption of healthy body function, leading to disease and disorders.

Recognize risk factors leading to disease and identify preventative measures and treatments.

Conference discussions will address normal and diseased structure and function of the human body. Various diseases and infections will be addressed.

To receive full credit for weekly participation, you must:

Participate individually with meaningful and original comments in the discussion of posted questions in the conferences. (See Academic Policies below for information about plagiarism.) A minimum of 3 posts per week is required. Your posts should be written in your own words and should be about 100 to 150 words long. Repetitive (redundant) answers, copied articles or portions of articles from websites, books, magazines, and so on will not count toward participation. Proper citation of sources (APA style) used for your responses is expected.

The due date for weekly conference(s) is every Sunday at 11:59 eastern time (ET). Other assignments are also due Sunday at 11:59 ET on their due dates.

Do not put off coursework until the end of the week. The deadline for classroom participation is 11:59 PM ET of the due date unless stated otherwise. You must participate in the classroom discussions before the stated deadline to receive credit.

The grading rubric for individual responses to critical thinking questions is as follows:

An original response to a discussion topic is worth up to 10 points. There are four elements to your grade for each response:

Originality—up to 6 points:

Student’s response is very detailed, original, and at least 100 words long, written in student’s own words. Reasoning is logical. (6 points)

Student’s response is complete, lacks some detail, partially written in student’s own words with greater reliance on quotations and at least 100 words long. Reasoning is logical. (5 points)

Student’s response lacks detail, but contains an original idea. Student uses few words. Some reasoning is illogical. (4 points)

Student repeats information previously stated in other responses in his own words. Response is at least 100 words long. Some reasoning is illogical. (3 points)

Student repeats information using few words. Answers lacking in substance. Reasoning is illogical. (2 points)

Student pastes and copies information from a source. (1 point)

Student incorporates terms and concepts learned from assigned materials. (1 point)

Yes—1 point

No—0 points

Student correctly cites resources in APA format. (1 point)

Yes—1 point

No—0 points

Form—grammar, spelling, style. (1 point)

No mistakes—1 point

Mistakes—0 points

Important: Responses pasted and copied from a source without a proper citation earn 0 points.

Patient Scenario (Upstream/Downstream) Assignment

Addresses Learning Outcomes:

Use knowledge of biological principles and the Scientific Method to ask and answer relevant questions about human health and disease

Analyze information to distinguish between diseased and healthy structure and functioning.

Analyze how internal and external factors cause disruption of healthy body function, leading to disease and disorders.

THE SCENARIO:

Mr. Smith is 60 years old. He was diagnosed with prostate cancer five years ago. Over the past few days, Mr. Smith has been feeling increasingly tired and has also been suffering from a headache that did not respond to over-the-counter medications. He scheduled an appointment with his physician.

His physician performed a physical examination and recommended a battery of laboratory tests and imaging procedures.

His blood pressure is 165/100 mmHg. MRI reveals metastasis of prostate cancer to osseous tissue. Abdominal CT shows obstruction of intestine due to nodular enlargement of adrenal glands.

The table below shows Reference values in the right-hand column. These values reflect the normal range of values for patients without disease or illness. The center column reflects the resulting values for medical test results obtained for Mr. Smith.

Take note whether Mr. Smith’s values are within normal limits.

Laboratory results from Mr. Smith’s second hospital admission and medical tests show following findings:

Mr. Smith

Reference Values

K+

2.6 mmol/L

3.8-4.9mmol/L

Hb

7.3 g/dl

13.8 to 18.2 g/dL

Hct

20.4%

45-52%

Platelet Count

20×109/L

150-400×109/L

HCO3

38 mmol/l

22-26 mmol/L

Urinary K+

70 mmol/L/24 hr

25-120 mmol/L/24 hr

Blood Glucose

460 mg/dl

64.8-104.4 mg/dL

Serum Aldosterone

1 ng/dl

<31 ng>

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Analyze how internal and external factors cause disruption of healthy body function, leading to disease and disorders.

Patient Scenario
Instructions 
AIDresses Learning Outcomes:

  • Use knowledge of biological principles and the Scientific Method to ask and answer relevant questions about human health and disease
  • Analyze information to distinguish between diseased and healthy structure and functioning.
  • Analyze how internal and external factors cause disruption of healthy body function, leading to disease and disorders.

Mr. Smith is 60 years old. He was diagnosed with a prostate cancer five years ago. Over the past few days, Mr. Smith has been feeling weak and increasingly tired and has also been suffering from a headache that did not respond to over-the-counter medications. He scheduled an appointment with his physician.

His physician performed a physical examination and recommended a battery of laboratory tests and imaging procedures.

The table below shows Reference values in the right-hand column. These values reflect the normal range of values for patients without disease or illness.  The center column reflects the resulting values for medical test results obtained for Mr. Smith.

Take note whether Mr. Smith’s values are within normal limits.

 Mr. SmithReference Values
K+2.6 mmol/L3.8-4.9mmol/L
Hb (Hemoglobin)7.5 g/dL13.8 to 18.2 g/dL
Hct (Hematocrit)20.4%45-52%
Platelet Count49×109/L150-400×109/L

After receiving Mr. Smith’s test results, his physician admits him to the hospital. Hospital staff treated him and discharged him.

The following week, Mr. Smith returns to his physician with the same complaint of weakness and a new complaint of shortness of breath. His blood pressure is 160/100 mmHg.  MRI reveals metastasis of prostate cancer to osseous tissue. Abdominal CT shows obstruction of intestine due to nodular enlargement of adrenal glands.

Laboratory results from Mr. Smith’s second hospital admission and medical tests show following findings:

 Mr. SmithReference Values
K+2.6 mmol/L3.8-4.9mmol/L
Hb7.3 g/dl13.8 to 18.2 g/dL
Hct20.4%45-52%
Platelet Count20×109/L150-400×109/L
HCO338 mmol/l22-26 mmol/L
Urinary K+70 mmol/L/24 hr25-120 mmol/L/24 hr
Blood Glucose460 mg/dl64.8-104.4 mg/dL
Serum Aldosterone1 ng/dl 
24 hour Urinary Aldosterone8.4 mcg/24 hr2.3-21.0 mcg/24 hr
Renin2.1 ng/ml/hr0.65-5.0 ng/ml/hr
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)1082 pg/ml9-46 pg/ml
Cortisol155.5 microg/dL0-25 microg/dL

CONCLUSION AND DIAGNOSIS

Laboratory findings, MRI and CT confirmed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma, hypertension and refractory hypokalemia due to ectopic ACTH production. High levels of circulating cortisol caused continuous activation of mineralocorticoid receptors resulting in hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and hypertension.

After reading provided scenario, answer the following questions:

1.   What are the components of physical examination? Describe each component. (See Module 12, Commentary, Topic 8. Disease Categories, Part B. Steps in Diagnosis)

2.   Mr. Smith’s blood pressure was 160/100 mmHg. How does a medical provider take or measure blood pressure? What do the top (numerator) and bottom (denominator) numbers mean in the biological sense? What is the significance the size of these two numbers? Is Mr. Smith’s blood pressure within normal range? Explain how you concluded whether Mr. Smith’s blood pressure is/is not within normal range.

3.   Based on the data provided, what laboratory tests were performed and what samples were taken from the patient?  Select one of the laboratory tests ordered for Mr. Smith and discuss why Mr. Smith’s physician might have ordered the test and the information she might have expected to obtain from that particular test.

4.   Compare Mr. Smith’s values with reference values and indicate whether MR. Smith’s values are below, above, or within normal range (compare Mr. Smith’s values with the Reference values) for each laboratory tests in the table above from the second set of tests.

5.   What imaging procedures did Mr. Smith undergo? Discuss the distinctions and similarities between the two different imaging approaches. What were the results of imaging procedures in Mr. Smith’s case?

6. Select one of the medical terms from the CONCLUSION and DIAGNOSIS section above and define what it means.  Also, discuss, in your own words and based on what you can gather about Mr. Smith’s condition, how the laboratory or imaging tests helped with drawing a conclusion or making the diagnosis. In your own words, discuss how medical providers use the scientific method to come to work through the examination and diagnosis of a patient.

You should write a short paper aIDressing all six questions Correct essays depend upon the content, clarity and originality of responses written in your own words. Good writing practices, including the use of correct grammar, sentence and paragraph structure, and punctuation, and presence of logical reasoning, will account for a portion of your grade.

Cite all sources in APA format within your answer text as well as full citations in APA format at the end of the assignment.

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